Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji <div>Welcome to <strong>Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia. </strong>Online journal published by Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University. For further information please <a href="/index.php/pji/about/contact">contact us</a></div> Brawijaya University en-US Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia 2461-114X <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br /><span>This work is licensed under a </span><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> The Sensitivity of Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Flusitosin to Fungal Pathogens Isolated from Wounds of Diabetic Ulcer Patients https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/767 <p>A diabetic ulcer is a wound caused by infection, ulceration or destruction in people with diabetes <br />mellitus. Mostly, diabetic ulcer found in foot. The purpose of this study was to identify pathogenic fungi <br />in diabetic ulcers and their sensitivity to fungal drugs. The morphological determination of fungal isolates <br />was stained with Lactophenol Cotton Blue. Determination of sensitivity using diffusion discs Kirby Bauer <br />which are classified based on Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) with Amphotericin B, <br />Fluconazole, and Flusitosin. Based on the results of the study found 8 types of pathogenic fungi namely <br /><em>Candida albicans</em> (38.78%), <em>Candida guilliermondii</em> (4.08%), <em>Candida kefyr</em> 10.20%), <em>Candida </em><br /><em>parapsilosis</em> (10.20%), <em>Fusarium solani</em> (14.29) %), <em>Microsporum audouinii</em> (14.29%), <em>Penicillium sp</em><br />(2.04%), <em>Trichophyton mentagrophytes</em> (4.08%), and <em>Trichophyton equinum</em> (2.04%). The fungus was <br />identified using Gideon software and the book Description of Medical Fungi. The results of the antifungal <br />sensitivity test showed the results were sensitive to fluconazole. Amphotericin B is intermediate to <br /><em>Candida albicans, Candida guilliermondii, Penicillium sp.</em> and <em>Trichophyton sp.</em> and is resistant to <br /><em>Candida kefyr</em> and <em>Candida parapsilosis</em>. Flusitosin is only an intermediate against Penicillium sp. while <br />other fungal species are immune. The conclusion of this study. The results of diabetic ulcer swabs III and <br />IV indicate the presence of fungal colonies with species of 9 species namely <em>Candida albicans, Candida </em><br /><em>guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida Parapsilosis, Fusarium solani, Microsporum Audouinii, </em><br /><em>Penicillium sp., Trichophyton mentagrophytes</em>, and <em>Trichophyton equinum</em>. Antifungal sensitivity tests on <br />all pathogenic fungi showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Amphotericin Bintermediatrics against <em>Candida </em><br /><em>albicans, Candida guilliermondii, Penicillium sp. and Trichophyton sp. while resistant to Candida kefyr</em><br />and <em>Candida parapsilosis</em>. Flusitosin is only an intermediate against Penicillium sp. while other fungal <br />species are resistant.</p> Rafika Sari Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 71 78 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.01 Insurance, Policy, Knowledge Level and Epidemiology As Factors Affecting Demand And Supply of Pharmaceutical Product https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/759 <p>Fulfillment of drug availability is always a challenge from year to year and is determined by supply <br />and demand issues for pharmaceutical drugs. Good management of drugs and pharmaceutical supplies is <br />important in health services. This is related to the quality of health services and the efficiency and <br />effectiveness of the budget. This review study aims to examine the factors that influence drug supply and <br />demand simultaneously with a different perspective from other studies, namely, the focus is to <br />simultaneously discuss the effects of health insurance financing schemes, registration regulations for <br />pharmaceutical products and imports of pharmaceutical products, the level of pharmacist knowledge, <br />changes in disease patterns, disasters, and wars on drug supply and demand. The research design that was <br />used in this study is a narrative review. The data sources that were used are PubMed, Science Direct, <br />Scopus, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria in this study are all research related to the demand for <br />pharmaceutical supplies and drugsthat will be reviewed in the study, either in the form of original research, <br />reviews, or reports. The results obtained articles consisting of 8 articles related to health insurance <br />financing, 6 articles related to registration regulation of pharmaceutical products and import of <br />pharmaceutical products, 5 articles related to pharmacist knowledge level, 3 articles related to changes in <br />disease patterns, and 3 articles related to disasters and wars. Based on the 25 articles that were used as data <br />in this study, it was found that the factors that influence the supply and demand of pharmaceutical supplies <br />are health insurance financing, regulation of registration drug processes and imports of pharmaceutical <br />products, level of knowledge of pharmacists as pharmaceutical service providers, changes in disease <br />patterns, disasters, politics, and war.</p> Noor Cahaya Hananditia Rachma Pramestutie Anita Kumala Hati Eka Kartika Untari Pinasti Utami Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 79 88 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.02 Pengaruh Kombinasi Matriks terhadap Karakter Tablet Metformin HCl Lepas Lambat Sistem Floating Effervescent https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/345 <p>The research aimed to prepare and evaluate of sustained release metformin HCl tablet with <br />floating system. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation using HPMC K4M and chitosan as matrixes <br />with proportions (w/w) 17.78%:4.44%; 14.44%:7.78%; 11.11%:11.11% ;7.78%;14.44%; 4.44%:17.78%. <br />The tablets were evaluated of weight variation, drug content, hardness, friability, and in vitro floating and <br />drug release studies. The dissolution study had been carried out for 6 hours using USP dissolution <br />apparatus II (paddle) in 900 ml HCl pH 3.0 media at 37±0.50C. All tablet formulas showed closed <br />similarity with the requirement physical tablet of United State Pharmacopea (USP) and Farmakope <br />Indonesia reference. The matrixes containing higher HPMC K4M, and lower chitosan showed floating lag <br />time decreased and duration time increased. Meanwhile, tablet disintegration was the lowest. The release <br />test showed that all formulas did not meet the requirements dissolution metformin HCl sustained release <br />tablet. The result of this study is sustained release tablet metformin HCl with matrixes HPMC K4M and <br />chitosan able to float, but it did not form sustained release.</p> Melati Permata Hati Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 89 96 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.03 Formulasi Sabun Cair Antibakteri Dari Kombinasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah Dan Ekstrak Kulit Lidah Buaya https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/319 <p>Daun sirih merah (<em>Piper crocatum</em> Ruiz &amp; Pav.) dan kulit lidah buaya (<em>Aloe vera</em> (L.) Burm.f.) mempunyai manfaat sebagai antibakteri. Tujuan dari penelitan ini adalah optimasi formula sabun cair kombinasi ekstrak daun sirih merah dan ekstrak kulit lidah buaya sebagai antibakteri terhadap <em>Staphylococcus aureus.</em> Penelitian ini dibuat dengan cara ekstrak daun sirih merah dan kulit lidah buaya dimaserasi dengan etanol 96% dan dipekatkan dengan rotary evaporator pada suhu 50°C. Pengujian antibakteri dilakukan terhadap bakteri <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>menggunakan metode difusi sumuran. Kombinasi ekstrak daun sirih merah dan kulit lidah buaya dibuat dalam 3 perbandingan yaitu 2,5% : 7,5%, 10% : 0%, 0% : 10%. Pembuatan sabun cair antibakteri dibuat dengan metode saponifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kombinasi optimum ekstrak daun sirih merah dan kulit lidah buaya dihasilkan pada perbandingan 2,5% : 7,5% dengan aktivitas antibakteri kategori kuat sebesar 19,23 mm. Kombinasi optimum ekstrak daun sirih merah dan kulit lidah buaya 2,5% : 7,5% dapat dibuat sediaan sabun cair antibakteri yang berwarna hijau kecoklatan, pH 8, kadar alkali bebas 0,13%, bobot jenis 1,09 g/mL, stabilitas busa 87%, viskositas 160 cP, rheologi termasuk pseudoplastis tiksotropi, dan memiliki aktivitas antibakteri yang optimum dengan kategori sangat kuat sebesar 26,6 mm</p> Teti Indrawati Alfianur Azmi Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 97 104 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.04 Efektivitas SNEDDS Kombinasi Fraksi Etil Asetat Daun Cengkodok (Melasthoma malabathricum)-Antibiotik terhadap Bakteri Hasil Isolat dari Pasien Ulkus Diabetik https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/768 <p>Diabetic ulcer is a condition where there are neurological abnormalities and peripheral arterial <br />vascular disease that causes infection, ulceration, and/or damage to the deepest skin tissue on the feet <br />of people with diabetes mellitus (DM). The long duration of wound healing is due to the wrong use of <br />antibiotics for a long time, and bacteria tend to become resistant to antibiotics. Antimicrobial <br />compound fraction of cengkodok combined with gentamicin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics for <br />prevention and reduction of antibiotic resistance in the cause of diabetic ulcers. The drug preparation <br />is in the form of self nanoemulsifiying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), which is the optimum <br />combination of cengkodok leaf fraction with gentamicin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. The use of <br />SNEDDS in this study is because the SNEDDS made from nanoemulsion formulations has small <br />particle size, large surface absorption, and good dispersion, so that it can be evenly dispersed on the <br />skin and penetrates the skin layer. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the formulation <br />cengkodok leaf fraction with gentamicin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics against <em>B. cereus</em> and <em>S. aureus</em><br />using the SNEDDS drug delivery system. The test uses the spotless diffusion method without using <br />paper discs. The results showed that the combination of cengkodok leaf fraction with gentamicin and <br />ciprofloxacin antibiotics had better activity against <em>B. cereus</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> than cengkodok leaf <br />fraction, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin only.</p> Rafika Sari Pratiwi Apridamayanti Liza Pratiwi Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 105 114 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.05 Evaluasi Parameter Mutu Ekstrak Air Daun Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn) https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/753 <p>Tahongai (<em>Kleinhovia hospita</em> Linn) is a medicinal plant that has various properties. This study aims <br />to determine standardization parameters the tahongai aqueous extract. The research method was carried <br />out by macroscopic and microscopic observations on Tahongai powder, then extracted by infusion method. <br />The aqueous extract was then subjected to organoleptic determination, identification of secondary <br />metabolites, determination of water soluble content and determination of water content, heavy metal <br />contamination determination, and microbial contamination test. The result for determination of <br />standardization parameter were: yield of the infusion was 10.38961%. Organoleptic test showed solid <br />form, medium characteristic odor, black color and bitter taste. Identification of secondary metabolites <br />showed a group of secondary metabolites of saponins and triterpenoids. Determination of the water soluble <br />extract content 11.648% and the water content 10.328%. Heavy metal contamination Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb <br />and As respectively were &lt;0.0001; &lt;0.0001; 0.9167; 49.2815; &lt;0.0001 and 44.1774 mg/Kg. Then on <br />microbial contamination, the result was 8.8 x 103 colonies/g. Based on PERKABPOM No. 12 of 2014, <br />the water extract of tahongai meets the minimum quality requirements for heavy metal content and <br />microbial contamination.</p> Hadi kuncoro Mutia Nur Sopiati Hifdzur Rashif Rijai Risna Agustina Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 115 122 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.06 Potensi Senyawa Turunan Xanton dari Kulit Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) Sebagai Inhibitor Protein Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Studi In Silico https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/360 <p>Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> infection that <br />attacks the lungs. Tuberculosis is a dangerous disease that can cause death. In overcoming it, a safe <br />and effective treatment is needed so that this disease can be cured. The purpose of this study was to <br />determine the potential activity of the active compounds derived from xanthones contained in the <br />mangosteen rind as an inhibitor of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> protein with the comparison compound <br />Isoniazid. The active compounds used in this study were α-mangostin, β-mangostin, γ-mangostin, <br />garsinon, gartanin, and 8-deoxygartanin. This research uses the molecular docking method with <br />Yasara, MarvinSketch, PubChem, PDB, and Plants 1.1 software. The results showed that the Gibss <br />energy produced by each test ligand had a difference value, either lower or higher than the native ligand <br />protein of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>. Lipinski screening was done to make it easier to determine a <br />molecule or compound based on its permeability and absorption properties. The results showed that <br />gartanin and 8-deoxygartanin complied with Lipinski's rules. Prediction of pharmacokinetic properties <br />and toxicity was carried out using the pkCSM website and can be concluded that gartanin and 8-<br />deoxygartanin compounds have good pharmacokinetic properties and low toxicity.</p> Nissa Maftucha RosarioTrijuliamus Manalu Rika Amelia Petra Cordia Regina Bupu Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 123 128 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.07 Efektivitas Dan Keamanan Terapi dengan Rejimen Bedaquiline dalam Terapi Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (TB-MDR): Kajian Sistematis https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/348 <p>MDR-TB is a tuberculosis disease caused by <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> which is resistant to isoniazid and <br />rifampin with or without resistance to other first-line drugs. The development of drug-resistant tuberculosis is causing <br />worldwide concern. Globally in 2019, almost half a million TB sufferers of which 78% had MDR-TB. In recent years, <br />MDR-TB patients increased by 10% from 186,883 patients in 2018 to 206,030 in 2019. Bedaquiline has been <br />recommended by WHO guidelines. Studies related to the effectiveness and safety of Bedaquiline are still few so that <br />there is a need for qualified information to prepare a country, especially Indonesia, for the use of Bedaquiline therapy, <br />especially since Indonesia is ranked second out of two-thirds of the total global TB. Objective: to describe the <br />effectiveness and safety of Bedaquiline in combination therapy for the treatment of MDR-TB. Methods: The literature <br />search was carried out independently by researchers using the online databases of Science Direct, Pubmed, and <br />Cochrane without restrictions on the type of research and year of publication. The keywords used in this study were <br />combined with Boolean operators, namely “bedaquiline” AND “tuberculosis” AND “multi-drug resistant”. Results: <br />Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, the intervention of giving Bedaquiline for 24 weeks can reduce the average <br />time of culture conversion by about 60-85 days. The percentage of culture conversion rate was higher with Bedaquiline <br />(range 70-85%) than placebo (58%). The most common side effects are nausea and hyperuricemia. The majority of <br />studies report a prolongation of the QT interval in patients treated with Bedaquiline. Conclusion: This systematic <br />review showed that Bedaquiline is effective and safe to use in the treatment of MDR-TB. However, serious side effects <br />of QT prolongation occurred in some respondents treated with Bedaquiline. Further studies need to be conducted to <br />monitor the side effects of QT prolongation associated with the administration of Bedaquiline in the treatment of <br />MDR-TB.</p> I Gusti Agung Ari Kusuma Yana Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 129 138 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.08 Analisis Kinerja Instalasi Farmasi RSU Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang dengan Pendekatan Balanced Scorecard https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/783 <p>The Pharmacy Installation of the University of Muhammadiyah Malang Hospital has never conducted a performance <br />measurement so it is not known how far the management has succeeded in achieving the organization's vision and goals. In <br />addition, performance measurement is also needed to support the hospital accreditation process. This study was conducted <br />to analyze the performance of the Pharmacy Installation of the University of Muhammadiyah Malang Hospital with a <br />balanced scorecard approach from growth and learning perspective, internal business perspective and costumer perspective. <br />This research was conducted in a non-experimental descriptive for growth and learning perspectives with research variables <br />employee satisfaction, work spirit, and retention rate of IFRSU UMM employees. In the internal business perspective, the <br />research was conducted observationally and analyzed descriptively with the research variables, dispensing time, level of <br />drug availability, and drug information services. From the customer perspective was conducted in a non-experimental, <br />quantitative analytical descriptive with research variables customer satisfaction and customer growth. The data was collected <br />with retrospective and prospective methods. This research used both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data was <br />obtained by interview. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaires and direct observation. The results of performance <br />research on the growth and learning perspective of employee satisfaction indicators are satisfaction with a total value of <br />2,724, the indicator of work spirit is high with an average total score of 3.14 and the indicator of the retention rate of IFRSU <br />UMM employees is at a normal value with an average turnover percentage of 7.88%. The results of the performance study <br />on the internal business perspective showed that the dispensing time indicators for regular prescriptions is 22 minutes and <br />32 minutes for compound prescriptions. Percentage of drug availability is 100% and the results of the evaluation study of <br />drug information services indicators have been implemented 100%, but there are information components that are not <br />conveyed such as dosage, side effects, duration of use, and drug storage methods. The performance customer perspective of <br />customer satisfaction indicators with the Servqual method obtained a negative gap value indicating customers are not <br />satisfied. Analysis using the IPA method obtained the average percentage level of conformity showed was 93,00% where <br />the results were in accordance with the Decree of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Number 129 of 2008 <br />concerning Hospital MSS. Analysis of customer growth indicators showed that the percentage results in 2019 were 101,39% <br />and in 2020 it was 100,35%, exceeding the range of good criteria. It can be concluded the performance of the Pharmacy <br />Installation of the University of Muhammadiyah Malang Hospital is quite good, but it is necessary to optimize and <br />improvement.</p> Ika Ratna Hidayati Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 139 146 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.09 Pengaruh Kombinasi Polimer PVP:EC dan HPMC:EC Terhadap Sediaan Transdermal Pada Karakteristik Patch yang Baik : Review https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/227 <p>Transdermal is a drug delivery system that is placed through the surface of the skin to release <br />the active substance in a certain dose into the bloodstream. The main constituent component in the <br />transdermal drug delivery system which has an effect on characteristics is polymer. One of the <br />developments in the transdermal route is the manufacture of patch preparations. Physically, a good <br />patch must be flexible, thin, smooth, homogeneous, have drying shrinkage and low moisture <br />absorption. So the aim of this review article was to determine the effect of polymer combinations on <br />transdermal preparations on good patch characteristics. The method used in this review article is a <br />literature review of various journals published online, with the category of national and international <br />journals. The results obtained 2 primary journals related to polymer combinations to transdermal <br />preparations, namely the combination of PVP: EC and HPMC: EC. The results of the review show that <br />the polymer combination can have an influence on the characteristics of the patch, including the fold <br />resistance test, weight uniformity test, thickness test, drying shrinkage test and moisture absorption <br />test.</p> Nova Fuziyanti Copyright (c) 2022 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://creativecommons.org/choose/results-one?license_code=by&amp;jurisdiction=&amp;version=4.0&amp;lang=en 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 147 152 10.21776/ub.pji.2022.007.02.10