https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/issue/feed Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Editor in Chief pji@ub.ac.id Open Journal Systems <div>Welcome to <strong>Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia. </strong>Online journal published by Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University. For further information please <a href="/index.php/pji/about/contact">contact us</a></div> https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/869 The Effectiveness Of Atorvastatin On Kidney Function In Outpatient Diabetic Nephrophaty Patients 2023-06-16T15:44:57+00:00 Didik Hasmono gwae23@yahoo.com Marledy Tanasy adetanasy@gmail.com Adelia Firandi adefir@yahoo.com Ruddy Hartono rhartono@gmail.com Putri Safitri Hanum hanump@gmail.com <p><strong><em>Introduction: </em></strong><em>Dyslipidemia can damage the kidneys through increased oxidative stress. Statins can be used as adjunctive therapy to standard treatment with ACEIs or ARBs to improve renoprotection. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>The study is that to analyze the effectiveness atorvastatin on changes in kidney function in patients diabetic nephropathy. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>It was observational study. Samples were taken prospectively from diabetic nephropathy patients receiving atorvastatin at the Interna Polyclinic of the Bhayangkara Hospital Surabaya namely November 2021 – January 2022. Patients aged 18 – 80 years received atorvastatin for ≤3 months before the study was conducted, with GFR stages 3A, 3B, and 4, with mild, moderate, and severe albuminuria degrees. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>There are several patients which receive ARBs, namely candesartan and ketoacid which can affect the results of the analysis so that different tests are conducted in the three groups, the result shows a significant decrease in BUN values in the sample group which receives additional ketoacid therapy (p &lt;0.05); besides, a decrease in parameters albuminuria in the group with additional 16 mg candesartan therapy which is not significant. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The administration atorvastatin alone 20 mg or in combination with candesartan 16 mg and ketoacid on kidney function after 3 months of use can prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>Atorvastatin; Diabetic Nephropathy; Kidney Function</em></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/865 Determination of FICI Value of Combination of Ethanol Extract of Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. Leaf Peel and Chloramphenicol Against Bacterial Pathogens 2023-05-22T13:46:29+00:00 Rafika Sari rafikasari@pharm.untan.ac.id <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><em>The Increasing case of antibiotic resistance encourages a new action that is the combination plant extracts and antibiotics. Aloe vera leaf skin (Aloe vera (L.) Burm f.) contains phenols, flavonoids and anthraquinones that act as antimicrobials. The aim of research is to determine the value of FICI </em>(<em>Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index</em>) <em>&nbsp;combination of ethanol extract of Aloe vera leaf skin (Aloe vera (L.) Burm f.) and chloramphenicol against pathogenic bacteria. The determination of MIC </em>(<em>Minimum Inhibitory Concentration</em>) <em>&nbsp;value of ethanol extract for Aloe vera leaf skin (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) and chloramphenicol use disc-paper diffusion method. The combination solution is created by a ratio of 1: 1 volumes from the every MIC values. The determination of FICI values ​​was analyzed by descriptive. The combination of </em><em>A</em><em>loe vera leaf skin extract (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) and chloramphenicol are used for Salmonella typhi bacteria which are 12.5mg / ml and 8 μg / ml, and for Bacillus subtilis bacteria</em><em> is</em><em> 2.5 mg / ml and 4 μg / ml resulted in inhibit zone 7.77 ± 0.25 and 7.83 ± 0.36. The combination of FICI value is 2 and </em><em>it </em><em>has indifference characteristics (not different) when </em><em>the researcherd</em><em> compared </em><em>between </em><em>single extract and single chloramphenicol. Aloe vera leaf skin ethanol extract (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) and chloramphenicol may inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and both of the combinations show indifference characteristics of FICI 2 values.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> FICI, </em><em>A</em><em>loe </em><em>V</em><em>era, </em><em>A</em><em>ntibacterial, </em><em>C</em><em>hloramphenicol</em></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/825 Screening of Bioactive Compounds of the Brown Algae Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh, 1848 From The Coastal Waters of Aboru Village, Central Maluku Indonesia 2023-01-31T14:15:25+00:00 Hermalina Sinay elinasinay08@gmail.com Mostafa El-sheekh mostafaelsheekh@science.tanta.edu.eg <p><em>Turbinaria ornata</em> belonging to brown algae is a leading community in the sea water ecosystems which is rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. The bioactive compounds of <em>T. ornata</em> are useful for medicine, pharmaceutical, industries and for people in the coastal area especially in Maluku Province as an archipelagic province. This study provides information about the importance and beneficial value of <em>T. ornata</em> and determines the bioactive compounds of <em>T. ornata </em>from in coastal waters of Aboru Village Central Maluku Regency. Screening of bioactive compounds was conducted qualitatively consisting of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids and anthocyanins.The result of this study showed that qualitative screening of bioactive compounds of brown algae <em>T. ornata</em>&nbsp; positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, phenolics, and flavonoids, while triterpenoids, quinones, and anthocyanins were negative. Based on this research, it can concluded that <em>T. ornata</em> contains some bioactive compounds including tannins, saponins, alkaloids, steorids, phenolics, and flavonoids.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/750 Faktor Prediktor Ketercapaian Target Tekanan Darah Pasien Hipertensi di RS PKU Muhammadiyah Gamping 2021-12-22T15:25:53+00:00 Siwi Padmasari siwipadmasari29@gmail.com Nadia Husna nadia.husna118@gmail.com <p>Hipertensi merupakan penyakit yang berada pada peringkat ketiga penyebab kematian di Indonesia dan D.I Yogyakarta menempati urutan ketiga. Banyaknya faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi capaian target tekanan darah seperti usia, penyakit penyerta, jenis kelamin, durasi hipertensi, dan regimen obat antihipertensi berhubungan signifikan dengan peningkatan tekanan darah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran penggunaan obat antihipertensi dan faktor risiko terhadap ketercapaian target tekanan darah pada pasien hipertensi rawat jalan di RS PKU Muhammadiyah Gamping Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian non-eksperimental dengan rancangan penelitian deskriptif analitik. Pengambilan data dilakukan secara retrospektif dari data rekam medis pasien hipertensi rawat jalan pada bulan Januari hingga Juli 2019. Pengambilan data dilakukan secara <em>purposive sampling</em>. Sampel pada penelitian ini didapatkan sebanyak 103 pasien. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif untuk melihat pola penggunaan obat antihipertensi dan persentase ketercapaian target tekanan darah. Hubungan antara faktor usia, penyakit penyerta, jenis kelamin, durasi hipertensi, dan regimen obat antihipertensi dengan capaian target tekanan darah dianalisis menggunakan analisis bivariat dan multivariat. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian didapatkan 42% pasien telah mencapai target tekanan darah berdasarkan JNC VIII. Pasien yang mendapatkan monoterapi antihipertensi sebanyak 33% dan kombinasi antihipertensi sebanyak 67%. Monoterapi paling banyak adalah obat golongan <em>Calcium Chanel Blocker</em> (17,48%) sedangkan kombinasi antihipertensi paling banyak golongan <em>Angiotensin Receptor Blocker</em> dan <em>Calcium Channel Blocker</em> (30,10%). Terdapat hubungan bermakna antara faktor usia, penyakit penyerta, durasi hipertensi, dan regimen obat antihipertensi terhadap ketercapaian target tekanan darah (p&lt;0,05). Faktor prediktor yang signifikan berpengaruh terhadap ketercapaian target tekanan darah pada pasien hipertensi adalah usia, penyakit penyerta, durasi hipertensi dan regimen terapi antihipertensi.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong> : faktor prediktor, hipertensi, tekanan darah</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/829 Efektivitas Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol 70% Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Dari Praya Lombok Tengah Dan Seyegan Sleman Yogyakarta Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus Dan Escherichia coli Secara In Vitro Serta Skrining Fitokimia 2022-12-12T13:59:50+00:00 Irmatika Hendriyani Irma irmatika92@gmail.com <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mimba (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Azadirachta indica </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">A. Juss) adalah tanaman yang multi fungsi. Daunnya dapat digunakan sebagai obat tradisional, salah satunya dapat berfungsi sebagai antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol 70% daun mimba (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Azadirachta indica </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">A. Juss) dari Seyegan, Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Praya, Lombok tengah, Lombok terhadap </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Escherichia coli</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> dan </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> serta perbedaan golongan senyawa yang terkandung dalam tanaman. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan dengan uji tabung.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ekstraksi menggunakan penyari etanol 70% dengan metode maserasi. Konsentrasi Hambat Minimum (KHM) diuji menggunakan metode dilusi cair dengan variasi konsentrasi 50%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, 25%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, 12,5%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, 6,25%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, 3,125%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v,</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> 1,56%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, sedangkan Konsentrasi Bunuh Minimum (KBM) ditentukan dari pengamatan konsentrasi terendah yang dapat membunuh bakteri yang digoreskan pada media Mc Conkey untuk </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Escherichia coli</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> dan media Agar Darah untuk </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Pemeriksaan golongan senyawa aktif yang terkandung dalam ekstrak dilakukan dengan uji tabung.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh Konsentrasi Hambat Minimum (KHM) tidak dapat ditentukan karena larutan uji tampak keruh, sedangkan Konsentrasi Bunuh Minimum (KBM) ekstrak dari Seyegan terhadap bakteri </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Escherichia coli</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> adalah 25%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> dan dari Praya adalah 25%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Konsentrasi Bunuh Minimum (KBM) ekstrak dari Seyegan terhadap </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Staphylococcus aureus </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">adalah</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">6,25%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">dan dari Praya adalah 6,25%</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> b</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">v</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Hasil uji tabung ekstrak dari Seyegan dan Praya mengandung golongan senyawa flavonoid, saponin, tanin, dan polifenol.</span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/879 Profil Drud Related Problems (DRPs) pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 di Instalasi Rawat Jalan Rumah Sakit X Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat Tahun 2018 2023-07-17T17:30:03+00:00 Candra Eka Puspitasari candrapuspitasari@unram.ac.id Baiq Sofianti Annisa baiqsofiantia@gmail.com Siti Rahmatul Aini sitira@unram.ac.id Arfi Syamsun arfisyamsun@unram.ac.id Zulkarnain zulkarnainmmr11@gmail.com Melda Putri Zakiyah meldazakiah@gmail.com <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus’s patients often receive polypharmacy therapy to prevent complications, but this has the potential effect to increase Drug Related Problems (DRPs). This study aims to evaluate the incidence of DRPs in type 2 diabetes mellitus’s patients at the Outpatient Installation of X Hospital in NTB Province in 2018. This research was conducted with a retrospective cross-sectional design with a sampling technique, namely purposive sampling. After the data is obtained, then classification of the problems and causes of DRPs is carried out based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Foundation Version 8.03 (PCNE V8.03). The results obtained 112 patients where 80 patients experienced DRPs events with a total of 224 DRPs events. The pattern of anti-diabetic use was dominated by the Biguanide group, namely Metformin (33.85%), followed by Insulin (29.75%), and Sulfonylureas (28.21%). Insulin use was dominated by Insulin Aspart (13.33%), while Sulfonylureas were dominated by Glimepiride (25.13%). Therefore, DRPs that occur sequentially are the categories of adverse drug effects that may occur (66.52%), drugs without indication (15.63%), drugs that are not appropriate according to guidelines/formularies (7.14%), symptoms or indications not treated (4.91%), the frequency of using the dose was insufficient (1.79%), the frequency of using the dose was too frequent (1.79%), the drug dose was too low (1.34%), too many drugs were prescribed for indications (0.45%) and the drug dose is too high (0.45%).</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/877 Related Factors of Antiretroviral Adherence in HIV/AIDS Patients at one of the Community Health Centers in Malang City 2023-12-07T03:30:56+00:00 Dimas Setyadi Putra dimassetyadiputra@gmail.com Irma Melyani Puspitasari irma.melyani@unpad.ac.id Sofa Dewi Alfian sofa.alfian@unpad.ac.id Aisha Maulidya Sari aishamaulidya25@webmail.umm.ac.id Ika Ratna Hidayati hidayati@umm.ac.id Rizka Novia Atmadani rizkanovia@umm.ac.id <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus has become a serious global problem due to increased yearly infections. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) must take antiretrovirals (ARV) to improve their quality of life, so adherence is the main focus of therapy. <strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to determine the factors that influence of adherence to ARV treatment in PLWHA at one of the Community Health Centers in Malang City. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study used a descriptive cross-sectional analysis method by collecting data using the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale (ARMS) questionnaire during the February-March 2021 period at one of the Community Health Centers in Malang City and the data was analyzed using multivariate regression to determine the factors that influence adherence to ARV treatment. <strong>Results:</strong> This study involved 85 PLHIV patients. A total of 59 people (69.4%) were included in the compliant category on antiretroviral treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that men were 4 times more likely to be disobedient (p=0.022; OR = 4.922; 95% Cl = 1.261 – 19.208), while respondents with school education were less likely to be disobedient p=0.007 ; OR = 0.118; 95% Cl = 0.025 – 0.558). As for age, marital status, and employment status did not have a significant effect on adherence to ARV treatment. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Gender is the most dominant factor in influencing adherence where male patients are 4 times more likely to be non-adherent compared to female patients.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/801 Hubungan Antara Tingkat Pengetahuan dan Ketepatan Apoteker Dalam Mengelola Obat Sisa, Obat Rusak, dan Obat Kedaluwarsa di Apotek Malang Raya 2022-05-27T11:45:03+00:00 Tamara Gusti Ebtavanny tamara.gusti@ub.ac.id Dhiana Firdauzia dhiana.firdauzia@gmail.com Hananditia Rachma Pramestuti hananditia@ub.ac.id Ayuk Lawuningtyas ayuk.hariadini@ub.ac.id Ratna Kurnia Illahi ratna.kurnia@ub.ac.id <p>Obat adalah komponen kefarmasian penting dalam bidang pelayanan kesehatan yang harus dijaga mutu dan kualitasnya agar tetap dalam kondisi baik sampai di tangan pasien. Dalam hal ini apoteker memiliki andil dalam menjaga mutu obat melalui pengelolaan obat yang baik dan benar. Apoteker harus memiliki pengetahuan dan ketepatan dalam pengelolaan obat sisa, obat rusak dan obat kedaluwarsa untuk mencegah penumpukannya di lingkup apotek dan masyarakat. Sehingga penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat pengetahuan apoteker dengan ketepatannya dalam mengelola obat sisa, obat rusak dan obat kedaluwarsa di Apotek Wilayah Malang Raya. Metode penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional dilaksanakan kepada 106 Apoteker yang bekerja di apotek Wilayah Malang Raya. Kuesioner yang telah lulus uji validitas dan reliabilitas, digunakan sebagai alat ukur tingkat pengetahuan dan ketepatan dari apoteker. Penelitian ini disetujui oleh Komite Etik Penelitian Kesehatan Fakuktas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya dengan nomor sertifikat 114/EC/KEPK/06/2020. Penelitian menunjukkan rata-rata tingkat pengetahuan responden apoteker berada pada kategori “baik” dengan nilai 81,6%, namun pada kuesioner ketepatan dengan indikator tepat cara penyimpanan obat dan tepat cara pemusnahan obat, menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat responden yang masuk dalam kategori “tepat”. Analisis korelasi antara tingkat pengetahuan dan ketepatan apoteker menunjukkan nilai signifikansi (p) &gt;0,05, yaitu sebesar 0,425. Disimpulkan dari penelitian ini, bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara tingkat pengetahuan apoteker dengan ketepatan pengelolaan obat sisa, obat rusak dan obat kedaluwarsa di Apotek wilayah Malang Raya.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong> : Apoteker, Tingkat Pengetahuan, Ketepatan, Obat Sisa, Obat Rusak, Obat Kedaluwarsa</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/895 A Review of Mechanism of Action of Moringa oleifera as an Inhibitor of Adipogenesis in Obesity 2023-12-21T14:46:50+00:00 Achmad Gigih Andy Putra achmad.gigih@ui.ac.id Melva Louisa melva.lousia@ui.ac.id <p>Background: Obesity has been becoming a global health problem that could cause the emergence of<br>many other diseases. Several strategies are used to treat obesity, including lifestyle modifications,<br>anti-obesity medications (pharmacotherapy), bariatric surgery, and gut microbiota transplantation.<br>Pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment method and is often chosen by obese people because it is<br>quite simple and does not require invasive and expensive procedures. However, long-term usage of<br>conventional medicines causes serious side effects. Therefore, studies about herbal medicine<br>increased significantly, one of them is Moringa oleifera (MO). Objectives: This review provides<br>information about the pathways involved in the adipogenesis processes in obesity and how MO can<br>inhibit adipogenesis through several pathways. Methods: Data were collected from PubMed based on<br>the keywords “moringa”, “obese”, “adipogenesis”, “adipocyte”, and “lipogenesis”. There were 16<br>journals in full text that met the inclusion criteria for conducting a literature study related to these<br>keywords over the last 10 years (from 2013 to 2023). Results: The anti-obesity effect of MO is<br>thought to come from several specific compounds isolated from this plant, including quercetin,<br>isoquercetin, quercetin-3-O-malonylglucoside, astragalin, kaempferol, isothiocyanate, EGCG, and<br>many others. These active compounds can be isolated from various parts of the MO plant, but the<br>most widely used are the leaves and seeds. These compounds exert anti-obesity activity by inhibiting<br>adipogenesis through multiple pathways, including the AMPK, PI3K/AKT, MAPK, JAK/STAT,<br>TGF-β, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Conclusions: Several in vivo, in vitro, and clinical trial studies<br>have been conducted to demonstrate the benefits and safety of MO as a medicinal plant with<br>pharmacological potential to inhibit adipogenesis in obesity.<br>Keywords: moringa; adipogenesis; adipocyte; lipogenesis; obese</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pji.ub.ac.id/index.php/pji/article/view/845 Uji Antimikroba Ekstrak Kapang Endofit RLC 5 Akar Tanaman Kayu Jawa (Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.) 2023-12-17T17:57:15+00:00 Muhammad Ikhsan muhammad.ikhsan19@mhs.uinjkt.ac.id Firdaus Ramadhan daushamada@istn.ac.id <p>Akar kayu jawa (<em>Lannea coromandelica</em> (Houtt.) Merr.) banyak mengandung senyawa saponin, steroid, dan alkoloid yang diketahui senyawa-senyawa tersebut memiliki potensi sebagai antimikroba. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji aktivitas antimikroba isolat kapang endofit akar tanaman kayu jawa dengan kode RLC 5 terhadap fungi dan bakteri patogen. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan peremajaan isolat RLC 5 selama 7 hari lalu dilakukan karakteristik secara makroskopik dan mikroskopik. Fermentasi dilakukan selama 21 hari untuk mencapai fase stasioner dalam memproduksi senyawa metabolit sekunder kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi dari hasil fermentasi isolat RLC 5 menggunakan vacuum rotary evaporator. Uji skrining metabolit dilakukan dengan menguji senyawa flavonoid, saponin, tanin, alkaloid, dan triterpenoid/steroid. Pengujian antimikroba dilakukan dengan metode difusi cakram untuk melihat zona bening yang terbentuk. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapang endofit RLC 5 merupakan kapang genus Penicillium yang mampu mensintesis metabolit sekunder berupa saponin, alkaloid dan steroid. Sifat antimikroba ekstrak supernatan isolat kapang RLC 5 lebih kuat dibanding ekstrak biomassanya, dengan zona hambat secara berurutan sebesar 9,03 mm, 11,09 mm, dan 19,83 mm terhadap Candida albicans, Malassezia furfur, dan Trichophyton mentagrophytes serta 12,51 mm dan 13,03 mm terhadap Bacillus subtilis dan Escherichia coli. Dengan demikian kapang RLC 5 berpotensi untuk menjadi fungisida dan antibiotik biostatik mikroba patogen.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023